The Serbian MiG-21 – the Yugoslav Air Force (Later Serbian AF) and Air Defence Force (YuAF, or JRV i PVO – Jugoslovensko Ratno Vazduhoplovstvo i Protiv-vazdusna Odbrana) was formed on 5th January 1945 as part of the army. These two constituent parts of the YuAF were united under a single and independent entity in July 1959. In 1986, the YuAF was organised into three Regional Corps, each containing all branches of the military; the aviation element comprised one fighter regiment and an Aviation Brigade, which contained amongst other units two fighter-bomber and one reconnaissance squadron. This conformation continued until 25th June 1991, when first Slovenia and, shortly afterwards, Croatia declared their independence.
Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in June 1991. Several Independent Air Units (Samostalni zrakoplovni vod, SZV) with a total of 41 aircraft operated to support local units (HV) of the National Guard (Zbor Narodne Garde, ZNG) fighting the Yugoslav army. After the Yugoslav army withdrew from most of Croatia in 1992 the Croatian Air Force (CroAF) or Hrvatsko ratno zrakoplovstvo i protuzračna obrana (HRZ i PZO) was formed. The only fighter aircraft used so far by the CroAF is the MiG-21 bis (izdeliye 75A and 75B) supported by MiG-21 UM (izdeliye 69) trainers converted to the ground attack role.
In September 1963 the Bulgarian PVOiWS (Air Defence Force and Air Force) took delivery of 12 MiG-21 F-13s. The new aircraft were taken from the 10th and 11th batches of production at Moscow zavod 30 ‘ZnamyaTruda’, which in 1962 had introduced a production line for export customers; the factory at Gor’kiy having switched to building a later model, the IVIiG-21 PF, for the Soviet Air Force. The MiG-21 F-13s were all initially based at Graf Ignatievo AB, Burgas, with 2 Iztrebitelna Avioeskadrila (IAE – Fighter Squadron) of the 19 Iztrebitelen Aviopolk (IAP – Fighter Regiment), that is, 2/19 IAE.
Tupolev had already, in mid-1931, drawn a passenger derivative of the ANT-16 powered by four geared M-35R engines, designated Tupolev ANT-20. To meet the new demand, which was from the start named for the writer it honoured, Tupolev kept the ANT-20 designation but further extended the outer wings and made other minor changes. The most important modifications were that, lacking the desired engines, Tupolev had to add two more on the leading edge, outboard of the existing four. Then, finding that this was still only marginally enough power, he added a final pair, making eight in all, in a tandem push/pull nacelle.
Though work on supporting items began immediately, actual design of the Tupolev ANT-25 did not start until April 1932. Tupolev appointed PO Sukhoi to lead the project. Structural design of the remarkable wing was entrusted to Petlyakov and Belyaev, with control surfaces assigned to N S Nekrasov. While the engine and its reduction gear were the responsibility of Mikulin, its installation and the fuel, oil and cooling systems were assigned to Ye I Pogosskii and K V Minkner.
The shock came when the CIA in Langley, USA, looked through data sent by their surveillance satellites from Ramenscoye aircraft test facility in Russia, at this time still the USSR and a potent enemy to NATO. According to rumors the USSR was going to introduce a new aircraft generation (MiG-29) with a performance equal to that of new NATO aircraft such as the F15 and F16. Nobody really believed in them, because the USSR was said to lack the experience and the abilities to develop such a high-tech aircraft. As the intelligence officer went through the data, he could hardly believe his eyes. He found signs of an aircraft at Ramenscoye ramp with a fuselage shape somewhat similar to an F15 but smaller in size. It received “RAM-L” as code-name for being a test aircraft from Ramenscoye and not yet in use with the Soviet Air Force.
The Indian Air Force MiG-29 UPG known as Baaz is the air superiority fighter and forms the second line of defence for the IAF after the Sukhoi Su-30MKI. The IAF operates 69 MiG-29s.
The MiG 29 Fulcrum was designed as an all-weather interceptor aircraft for gaining and maintaining air superiority above the battlefield. MiG-29 was intended to operate from small makeshift bases, located closely to the ground operations, moving forward into enemy territory with the forward line of own troops. Additionally MiG-29 should give a certain close air support and protection to the ground forces when air superiority had already been archived. The aircraft’s general layout was determined by requirements for high maneuverability, a heavy air-to-air and air to-ground weapons load, high maintainability and reliability, the latter being off less importance than the others.