MiG-29 History

MiG-29 History – Born of “Fulcrum”

The shock came when the CIA in Langley, USA, looked through data sent by their surveillance satellites from Ramenscoye aircraft test facility in Russia, at this time still the USSR and a potent enemy to NATO. According to rumors the USSR was going to introduce a new aircraft generation (MiG-29) with a performance equal to that of new NATO aircraft such as the F15 and F16. Nobody really believed in them, because the USSR was said to lack the experience and the abilities to develop such a high-tech aircraft. As the intelligence officer went through the data, he could hardly believe his eyes. He found signs of an aircraft at Ramenscoye ramp with a fuselage shape somewhat similar to an F15 but smaller in size. It received “RAM-L” as code-name for being a test aircraft from Ramenscoye and not yet in use with the Soviet Air Force. […]

Indian MiG-29

Indian MiG-29 UPG Bazz

The Indian Air Force MiG-29 UPG known as Baaz is the air superiority fighter and forms the second line of defence for the IAF after the Sukhoi Su-30MKI. The IAF operates 69 MiG-29s.

The MiG 29 Fulcrum was designed as an all-weather interceptor aircraft for gaining and maintaining air superiority above the battlefield. MiG-29 was intended to operate from small makeshift bases, located closely to the ground operations, moving forward into enemy territory with the forward line of own troops. Additionally MiG-29 should give a certain close air support and protection to the ground forces when air superiority had already been archived. The aircraft’s general layout was determined by requirements for high maneuverability, a heavy air-to-air and air­ to-ground weapons load, high maintainability and reliability, the latter being off less importance than the others. […]

MiG-29 Luftwaffe

MiG-29 Luftwaffe – in service

At the very beginning the Luftwaffe hardly welcomed the weapons system. German officials were very suspicious about an Eastern type of aircraft in use with a standard NATO wing. In 1990 the decision was made to keep the MiG 29 in airworthy condition and to conduct a minimum flying service at a rate of two or three flight hours per week and per aircraft from January 1991 onwards. Four MiG 29s, two A and two UB models were handed over to the Test and Evaluation Center 61 (WTD 61) in Manching near Ingolstadt, Bavaria. Another MiG 29s went overseas to the US Air Force for evaluation and remained there for over one and a half years. With the “Gulf War” becoming more and more inevitable, sorties and missions of aircraft from the “allied” nations were conducted against the MiG, as MiG-29 was also one of the spearheads in Saddam Hussein’s air force. […]

MiG-29 Upgrade

Luftwaffe MiG-29 Upgrade

After the decision was made to keep MiG-29 Fulcrum in Luftwaffe service, the German MoD began to think about a possible combat efficiency upgrade for its MiG-29s to overcome most of these technical problems such as the cockpit placards being written in Cyrillic, making it difficult for a Western pilot to operate the aircraft properly. Another problem can be found in the avionics, which are set to the metrical system. The altimeter read outs are in meters, ranges on the radar are in kilometers and the speed is given in kilometers per hour. The most important problem of the MiG 29, however, is limited fuel capacity. As MiG-29 lacks an air­ to-air refueling capability, CAP (combat air patrol) operations inside an FAOR for more than 35 minutes are impossible without continual replacement of the participating aircraft. DASA (now EADS) at Manching was chosen, together with MiG MAPO at Russia forming MAPS, a German-Russian joint venture, which should conduct the upgrade for all MiG-29s to Western ICAO standards. […]

J-7 Fighter

J-7 fighter is Chinese interceptor-fighter based on Soviet MiG-21F-13 (Fishbed C).

In early 1961 the Soviet Union granted China licence manufacturing rights for the MiG-21F-13 tactical fighter and its Tumanskiy R11F-300 afterburning turbojet. In keeping with the licensing agreement three Fishbed-Cs were delivered to China as pattern aircraft, along with CKD kits for an initial batch of 20 fighters. Before the technology could be transferred in full, however, the rift between Moscow and Beijing occurred, and all co-operation in defence matters was broken off. Havinq an incomplete set of manufacturing documents, the Chinese nevertheless decided to launch MiG-21 production no matter what. […]

J-6 Fighter

Designated Jianjiji-6 Bing or Shenyang J-6 fighter C (J-6C), the air­craft entered flight test on 6th August 1969; the prototype was probably white overall and serialled ‘112 Red’. The J-6 fighter C was built in quan­tity, equipping more than 40 PLAAF and Naval Air Arm (PLANAF) units. The export designa­tion was F-6C; judging by the construction numbers of some Pakistani aircraft, the in- house product code at Shenyang was 55-.

Like the original Shenyang J-6, most J-6Cs were armed with three Type 23-2 cannons. Some aircraft, however, had Type 30-1 cannons with large muzzle brakes; moreover, Egyptian F-6Cs fitted with the heavy cannons featured non­standard trapezoidal blast panels. […]


The F-15 MTD – STOL (Maneuver Technology Demonstrator / Short Takeoff and Landing) is a version of F-15E Strike Eagle developed for NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It was first flown on September 7, 1988. This aircraft would later be used in the Intelligent Flight Control System programs from 1999 to 2008.

The aircraft is highly modified and is not representative of production F-15 aircraft.  It was selected to serve as the research testbed for the S/MTD program because of the flexibility of its unique flight and propulsion control system. […]

HAL Tejas

The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) Tejas is a Indian single-seat, single-engine, 4.5 generation multirole fighter aircraft developed for Indian Navy and Indian Air Force. The Indian Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) programme was launched in early 1980s for two primary purposes. […]

IAR 95 Spey

The IAR 95 Spey or IAR 95ME was a Romanian 4th-generation, two seater, supersonic multi-role fighter / ground attack aircraft of cropped delta-canard planform. It was designed by INCAS Romania (under leadership of Dumitru Badea) but cancelled before production began in 1988. […]

MiG 21F – Fishbed-C

The Mikoyan and Gurevich MiG 21F, NATO codename Fishbed-C, is a single-seat, supersonic, tailed delta jet fighter / interceptor of generally conventional conception: the most noticeable thing about it is the fact that it is not a very “clean” aircraft – there are bumps and excrescences everywhere, especially around the rear fuselage. […]


The HAL AMCA (Hindustan Aeronautics Limited – Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft) is a Hindustan (India) single-seat, twin-engine, 5th-generation stealth multirole fighter being developed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited with Russian assistance (Sukhoi OKB). […]

MiG 21I Imitator

The MiG 21I was an experimental version developed from MiG-21S. Only two was produced. They were also called MiG-21I Imitator and MiG-21I Analog. Both aircraft were taken from the assembly line of the […]

Panavia Tornado GR4

The Panavia Tornado GR4 is a two engine, variable-geometry, two-seat, day or night, all-weather attack aircraft, capable of delivering a wide variety of weapons.

GR4 is powered by two Rolls Royce RB 199 Mk 103 turbofan engines, each of them is rated at a maximum thrust of 16,500 lbf (73.5 kN). It is a capable of low-level supersonic flight and can sustain a high subsonic cruise speed. The aircraft can fly automatically at low level using terrain-following radar when poor weather prevents visual flight. […]

Panavia Tornado F3

Originally a development from the Panavia Tornado GR1 (Air Defence Variant), the Tornado F3 was introduced as a twin-engine, long-range interceptor aircraft used by British RAF.

The Tornado F3 made its maiden flight on 20 November 1985, and its made combat debut in the 1991 Gulf War with 18 aircraft deployed to Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. After 1991 combat operations continued as the southern no-fly zones over Iraq were patrolled. The Tornados flew from Saudi Arabia under Operation Bolton, Operation Resinate South and 2003 Operation Telic. […]

A-10 Thunderbolt II

Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II (nicknamed Warthog) is an American single-seat aircraft. It is a one of the best ground-attack aircraft on the world. The A-10 was designed for a USAF requirement to provide close air support for ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and all other ground targets.

The A-10 has superior maneuverability at low speeds and altitude because of its large wing area, high wing aspect ratio, and large ailerons. It is powered by two General Electric […]

JH-7 Fighter

The second production version of JH-7, designated JH-7 fighter A (or JH-7 Block 02) differed from the ini­tial model (Jh-7) in having composite structures saving weight, an improved FBW control system and improved avionics. The latter included a new JL-10A Shan Ying J-band pulse-Doppler radar. The radar developed by the Laiyang Electronics Technology Research Institute (LETRI) had a detection range of 80 km (50 miles) and a tracking range of 40 km (25 miles) in look-up mode, or 54 km (34 miles) and 32 km (20 miles) respectively in look-down mode; the field of view in azimuth was ±60° and the radar could track four targets at a time. […]

Harbin H-5

The Harbin H-5 is Chinese version of Soviet Ilyushin IL-28. In the early 1950s the PLAAF started taking delivery of the Ilyushin IL-28 tactical bomber (NATO reporting name Beagle). The aircraft, which first flew in July 1948, featured a rather curious combination of shoulder-mounted unswept wings and swept conventional tail surfaces; it was powered by two 2,700-kgp (5,950-lbst) Klimov VK-1 centrifugal-flow turbojets in area-ruled nacelles which adhered directly to the wing undersurface and accom¬modated the main gear units as well. The bomber had a crew of three – a pilot seated in a fighter-type cockpit, a navigator/bomb-aimer in the extensively glazed nose and a gunner operating the hydraulically powered twin-can- non tail barbette. […]

Xian H-8

Persisting with the idea of improving the H-6’s performance, on 23rd March 1970 the Chinese government tasked the No. 603 Research Institute with developing a strategic bomber designated Xain H-8. The aircraft was to be capable of delivering conventional and nuclear free-fall weapons or air-to-surface missiles over long range, as well as of operating at night and in adverse weather without the assistance of airborne command posts. […]